By Helena Jin, Cesar Sciammarella, Sanichiro Yoshida, Luciano Lamberti
Advancement of Optical tools in Experimental Mechanics, quantity three: lawsuits of the 2014 Annual convention on Experimental and utilized Mechanics, the 3rd quantity of 8 from the convention, brings jointly contributions to this significant quarter of analysis and engineering. the gathering offers early findings and case stories on quite a lot of optical tools starting from conventional photoelasticity and interferometry to newer DIC and DVC thoughts, and comprises papers within the following common technical learn areas:
· complex optical tools for frontier applications
· complex optical interferometry
· Optical dimension structures utilizing polarized light
· Optical tools for complex production
· electronic photo correlation
· Optical tools on the micro/nano-scale
· third-dimensional imaging and volumetric correlation
· Imaging tools for thermomechanics applications
· Opto-acoustical tools in experimental mechanics
· Optical measurements in not easy environments
· Optical equipment for inverse problems
· Advances in optical methods
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Extra info for Advancement of Optical Methods in Experimental Mechanics, Volume 3: Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics
At this point it is important to describe the phenomenon leading to the generation of the emitted light with different spatial frequencies on rough metallic surfaces. A rough surface can be thought of as the superposition of many gratings of different periodicities. Kretschmann analyzed this problem in the following fashion . A rough surface can be defined through the following statistical correlation function: ð 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 G ðx; yÞ ¼ z x ; y z x À x, y À y dx dy A ð3:6Þ A where z(x,y) is the Monge’s representation of the surface height and A is the area of integration.
Photons carrying the surface topography information, as it is has been explained in Sect. 5, emerge along the direction approximately perpendicular to the grating surface according to the corresponding diffraction orders of the grating. 9 is a schematic representation to explain the contouring process model although from the theoretical point of view of optics the process is very complex if one considers all the steps required for a full explanation. A ray optics approach can be utilized to obtain the relationship between the depth information and the diffraction orders produced by the grating.
By introducing the argument exp k r À iot , the periodicity in space is included in the wave solution. The quantity k is ! ! ! the wave number 2p/l. For a plane wave, the position vector r is characterized by the equation r =r a i þ b j þ g k , where a, b and g are the direction cosines of the considered vector. A general solution of Eq. 1) is possible by assuming that a, b and g are complex quantities that have real and imaginary components. By defining: ! 8 < a ¼ a1 þ ia2 b ¼ b1 þ ib2 : g ¼ c1 þ ic2 ð3:2Þ k r ¼ k½Àða2 x þ b2 y þ c2 zÞ þ iða1 x þ b1 y þ c1 zÞ ð3:3Þ !
Advancement of Optical Methods in Experimental Mechanics, Volume 3: Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics by Helena Jin, Cesar Sciammarella, Sanichiro Yoshida, Luciano Lamberti